Afrika Bambaataa and The Soul Sonic Force

Afrika Bambaataa

Afrika Bambaataa

Bambaataa (left) with DJ Yutaka (right) in 2004.
Background information
Birth name Unknown, purported to be Kevin Donovan by some sources
Born Officially unknown, some sources say October 4th, 1957 (unconfirmed)
Origin The Bronx, New York, U.S.
Genres Hip hop, electro, disco
Occupations DJ, producer, activist
Instruments Vocals, turntables, keyboards, synthesizer
Years active 1972–present
Labels Tommy Boy Records
Winley Records
Capitol Records
DMC Records
Planet Rock Music
Associated acts Soulsonic Force, Leftfield, Time Zone, Shango, Hydraulic Funk, Nebula Funk, Afrika Bambaataa and Family, Cosmic Force, Jazzy Five, Arthur Baker, John Lydon, Lee Evans (producer) Rae Serrano (producer), James Brown, George Clinton, Bootsy Collins, Sly and the Family Stone, Bill Laswell, Jungle Brothers, Grandmaster Melle Mel, Busy Bee Starski, Lovage, Nujabes

Afrika Bambaataa is an American DJ from the South Bronx, New York who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1980s. Afrika Bambaataa is one of the three originators of break-beat deejaying, and is respectfully known as the "Grandfather" and the Amen Ra of Universal Hip Hop Culture as well as the Father of The Electro Funk Sound. Through his co-opting of the street gang the Black Spades into the music and culture-oriented Universal Zulu Nation, he is responsible for spreading hip hop culture throughout the world. On September 27, 2007, he was nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.


Afrika Bambaataa grew up in the Bronx River Projects, with an activist mother and uncle. As a child, he was exposed to the black liberation movement, and witnessed debates between his mother and uncle regarding the conflicting ideologies in the movement. He was exposed to his mother's extensive and eclectic record collection. Gangs in the area became the law in the absence of law, clearing their turf of drug dealers, assisting with community health programs and both fighting and partying to keep members and turf. Bambaataa was a founding member of the Bronx River Projects-area street gang The Savage Seven. Due to the explosive growth of the gang, it later became known as the Black Spades, and Bambaataa quickly rose to the position of warlord. As warlord, it was his job to build ranks and expand the turf of the Black Spades. Bambaataa was not afraid to cross turfs to forge relationships with other gang members, and with other gangs. As a result, the Spades became the biggest gang in the city in terms of both membership and turf.

After Bambaataa won an essay contest that earned him a trip to Africa, his worldview shifted. He had seen the movie Zulu and was impressed with the solidarity exhibited by the Zulu in that film. During his trip to Africa, the communities he visited inspired him to stop the violence and create a community in his own neighborhood. He changed his name to Afrika Bambaataa Aasim, adopting the name of the Zulu chief Bhambatha, who led an armed rebellion against unfair economic practices in early 20th century South Africa that can be seen as a precursor to the anti-apartheid movement. He told people that his name was Zulu for "affectionate leader". A young Afrika Bambaataa began to think about how he could turn his turf-building skills to peacemaking. He formed the "Bronx River Organization" as an alternative to the Black Spades.

Along with other DJs such as DJ Kool Herc and Kool DJ Dee, he too began hosting hip hop parties. He vowed to use hip hop to draw angry kids out of gangs and formed the Universal Zulu Nation. Bambaataa is credited with naming hip-hop. "Hip hop" was a common phrase used by MCs as part of a scat-inspired style of rhyming, and Bambaataa appropriated it for use in describing the emerging culture, which included the four elements: the music of DJs, the lyricism and poetry of emcees, the dancing of b-boys and b-girls, and graffiti art.

In 1982, Bambaataa and his followers, a group of dancers, artists and DJs, went outside the United States on the first hip hop tour. Bambaataa saw that the hip hop tours would be the key to help expand hip hop and his Universal Zulu Nation. In addition it would help promote the values of hip hop that he believed are based on peace, unity, love, and having fun. Bambaataa brought peace to the gangs as many artists and gang members say that "hip hop saved a lot of lives". His influence inspired many overseas artists like the French rapper MC Solaar. He was a popular DJ in South Bronx rap scene and became known not only as Afrika Bambaataa but also as the "Master of Records". He established two rap crews: the Jazzy 5 including MCs Master Ice, Mr. Freeze, Master Bee, Master D.E.E, and AJ Les, and the second crew referred to as Soulsonic Force including Mr. Biggs, Pow Wow and Emcee G.L.O.B.E.

In that same year Bambaataa and Soulsonic Force dropped the live band to go high-tech. Bambaataa credited the pioneering Japanese electropop group Yellow Magic Orchestra, whose work he sampled, as an inspiration. He also borrowed an eerie keyboard hook from German electronic pioneers Kraftwerk and was provided an electronic "beat-box" by producer Arthur Baker and synthesizer player John Robie. That resulted in a pop hit "Planet Rock", which went to gold status and generated an entire school of "electro-boogie" rap and dance music. Bambaataa formed his own label to release the Time Zone Compilation. He created "turntablism" as its own sub-genre and the ratification of "electronica" as an industry-certified trend in the late 1990s.

Birth of the Zulu Nation

Bambaataa decided to use his leadership skills to turn those involved in the gang life into something more positive to the community. This decision began the development of what later became known as the Universal Zulu Nation, a group of socially and politically aware rappers, B-boys, graffiti artists and other people involved in hip hop culture. By 1977, inspired by DJ Kool Herc and DJ Dee, and after Disco King Mario loaned him his first equipment, Bambaataa began organizing block parties all around the South Bronx. He even faced his long time friend, Disco King Mario in a DJ battle. He then began performing at Stevenson High School and formed the Bronx River Organization, then later simply "The Organization". Bambaataa had deejayed with his own sound system at the Bronx River Community Center, with Mr. Biggs, Queen Kenya, and Cowboy, who accompanied him in performances in the community. Because of his prior status in the Black Spades, he already had an established Army party crowd drawn from former members of the gang. Hip hop culture was spreading through the streets via house parties, block parties, gym dances and mix tapes.

About a year later Bambaataa reformed the group, calling it the Zulu Nation (inspired by his wide studies on African history at the time). Five b-boys (break dancers) joined him, whom he called the Zulu Kings, and later formed the Zulu Queens, and the Shaka Zulu Kings and Queens. As he continued deejaying, more DJs, rappers, b-boys, b-girls, graffiti writers, and artists followed him, and he took them under his wing and made them all members of his Zulu Nation. He was also the founder of the Soulsonic Force, which originally consisted of approximately twenty Zulu Nation members: Mr. Biggs, Queen Kenya, DJ Cowboy Soulsonic Force (#2), Pow Wow, G.L.0.B.E. (creator of the "MC popping" rap style), DJ Jazzy Jay, Cosmic Force, Queen Lisa Lee, Prince Ikey C, Ice Ice (#1), Chubby Chub; Jazzy Five-DJ Jazzy Jay, Mr. Freeze, Master D.E.E., Kool DJ Red Alert, Sundance, Ice Ice (#2), Charlie Choo, Master Bee, Busy Bee Starski, Akbar (Lil Starski), and Raheim. The personnel for the Soulsonic Force were groups within groups with whom he would perform and make records.

In 1980, Bambaataa's groups made their first recording with Paul Winley Records titled, "Death Mix". According to Bambaata, this was an unauthorized release. Winley recorded two versions of Soulsonic Force's landmark single, "Zulu Nation Throwdown", with authorization from the musicians. Disappointed with the results of the single, Bambaataa left the company.

The Zulu Nation was the first hip-hop organization, with an official birth date of November 12, 1973. Bambaataa's plan with the Universal Zulu Nation was to build a youth movement out of the creativity of a new generation of outcast youths with an authentic, liberating worldview.


In 1982, hip hop artist Fab Five Freddy was putting together music packages in the largely white downtown Manhattan New Wave clubs, and invited Bambaataa to perform at one of them, the Mudd Club. It was the first time Bam had performed before a predominantly white crowd. Attendance for Bambaataa's parties downtown became so large that he had to move to larger venues, first to the Ritz, with Malcolm McLaren's group "Bow Wow Wow", then to the Peppermint Lounge, The Jefferson, Negril, Danceteria and the Roxy. "Planet Rock", a popular single produced by Arthur Baker and the keyboardist John Robie, came out that June under the name Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force. The song borrowed musical motifs from German electronic music, funk, and rock. Different elements and musical styles were used together. The song became an immediate hit and stormed the music charts worldwide. The song melded the main melody from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" with electronic beats based on their track "Numbers" as well as portions from records by Babe Ruth and Captain Sky, thus creating a new style of music altogether, electro funk.

Bambaataa organized the very first European hip hop tour. Along with himself were rapper and graffiti artist Rammellzee, Zulu Nation DJ Grand Mixer DXT (formerly Grand Mixer D.St), B-boy and B-girl crews the Rock Steady Crew, and the Double Dutch Girls, as well as legendary graffiti artists Fab 5 Freddy, PHASE 2, Futura 2000, and Dondi.

Bambaataa's second release around 1983 was "Looking for the Perfect Beat", then later, "Renegades of Funk," both with the same Soulsonic Force. He began working with producer Bill Laswell at Jean Karakos's Celluloid Records, where he developed and placed two groups on the label: "Time Zone" and "Shango". He recorded "Wildstyle" with Time Zone, and he recorded a collaboration with punk-rocker John Lydon and Time Zone in 1984, titled "World Destruction". Shango's album, "Shango Funk Theology", was released by the label in 1984. That same year, Bambaataa and other hip hop celebrities appeared in the movie Beat Street. He also made a landmark recording with James Brown, titled "Unity". It was billed in music industry circles as "the Godfather of Soul meets the Godfather of Hip Hop".

Around October 1985, Bambaataa and other music stars worked on the anti-apartheid album Sun City with Little Steven Van Zandt, Joey Ramone, Run-D.M.C., Lou Reed, U2, and others. During 1988, he recorded another landmark piece, "Afrika Bambaataa and Family", for Capitol Records, titled The Light, featuring Nona Hendryx, UB40, Boy George, George Clinton, Bootsy Collins, and Yellowman. Bambaataa had recorded a few other works with Family three years earlier, one titled "Funk You" in 1985, and the other titled "Beware (The Funk Is Everywhere)" in 1986. In 1986 Bambaataa also discovered an artist in Atlanta Ga. (Through MC SHY D) by the name of Kenya Miler a.k.a MC Harmony (Known producer now as Kenya Fame Flames Miller), that was later signed to Criminal Records and Arthur Baker. The group was Harmony and LG. The first single "Dance To The Drums/No Joke was produced by Bambaataa and Baker with musicians Keith LeBlanc, and Doug Wimbush 1987. Bambaataa was involved in the Stop the Violence Movement, and with other hip hop artists recorded a 12" single titled "Self Destruction", which hit number one on the Hot Rap Singles Chart in March 1989. The single went gold and raised $400,000 for the National Urban League to be used for community anti-violence education programs.

In 1990, Bambaataa made Life magazine's "Most Important Americans of the 20th Century" issue. He was also involved in the anti-apartheid work "Hip Hop Artists Against Apartheid" for Warlock Records. He teamed with the Jungle Brothers to record the album "Return to Planet Rock (The Second Coming)".

Gee Street Records, John Baker and Bambaataa organized a concert at Wembley Stadium in London in 1990 for the African National Congress (ANC), in honor of Nelson Mandela's release from prison. The concert brought together performances by British and American rappers, and also introduced both Nelson and Winnie Mandela and the ANC to hip hop audiences. In relation to the event, the recording Ndodemnyama (Free South Africa) helped raise approximately $30,000 for the ANC. Bambaataa also helped to raise funds for the organization in Italy.

From the mid-1990s, Bambaataa returned to his electro roots, collaborating with WestBam (who was named after him) which culminated in the 2004 album Dark Matter Moving at the Speed of Light which featured Gary Numan and many others. In 2000, Rage Against the Machine covered Afrika's song "Renegades of Funk" for their album, Renegades. The same year, Bambaataa collaborated with Leftfield on the song "Afrika Shox", the first single from Leftfield's Rhythm and Stealth. "Afrika Shox" is also popularly known from the soundtrack to Vanilla Sky. In 2006, he was featured on the British singer Jamelia's album Walk With Me on a song called "Do Me Right", and on Mekon's album Some Thing Came Up, on the track "D-Funktional". Bambaataa performed the lyrics on the track "Is There Anybody Out There" by The Bassheads (Desa Basshead). As an actor, he has played a variety of voice-over character roles on Kung Faux.

Bambaataa was a judge for the 6th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists' careers. On September 27, 2007, it was announced that Afrika Bambaataa was one of the nine nominees for the 2008 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inductions. On December 22, 2007, he made a surprise appearance performing at the First Annual Tribute Fit For the King of King Records, Mr. Dynamite James Brown in Covington, Kentucky.





External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrika_Bambaataa

181st Tactical Fighter Group

181st Intelligence Wing

181st Intelligence Wing
181st Intelligence Wing - Emblem.png
181st Intelligence Wing emblem
Active 1923–present)
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force/Air National Guard
Type Wing
Role Intelligence analysis and information protection
Part of Air National Guard/Air Combat Command
Garrison/HQ Hulman Field, Terre Haute, IN

The United States Air Force's 181st Intelligence Wing is a unit located at Hulman Field, Terre Haute, Indiana. It is one of six Air National Guard wings that works with the Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency.


The 181st IW monitors near real time video feed from unmanned aerial vehicles hovering the skies over any military area of operation. It second mission is to advise the ground commanders on the best way to utilize assets for close air support.


The 181st Intelligence Wing, Indiana Air National Guard, dates back to 1921, after Wilbert F. Fagley was given authority to organize Headquarters Battery, 81st Field Artillery in Kokomo, Indiana.

The Unit was redesignated the 137th Observation Squadron before being changed to the 113th Observation Squadron. During 1926, the unit moved to Schoen Field and later to Stout Field, both in Indianapolis. Finally, in 1954 the Wing moved to its present location at Terre Haute International Airport.

The unit served in World War II, flying anti-submarine patrol along the East Coast of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico. The 181st was also activated for the Korean War and the Berlin Crisis of 1961. Additionally, portions of two units within the Wing were activated for Operation Desert Storm. The Wing has served the citizens of Indiana many times during floods and other natural disasters.

Known as the 'Racers,' the Wing participated from 31 August 1995 to 30 August 1997 in a humanitarian deployment to Romania. It also provided security for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. Later it deployed to Al Jabar Air Base, Kuwait, on two separate occasions in support of Operation Southern Watch.

In 2001, the 181st Fighter Wing flew Combat Air Patrols over the Midwestern United States less than four hours after the September 11 attacks. The 181st Fighter Wing drastically increased its operations tempo since these terrorist attacks to guard America's skies and protect freedom. The 181st deployed members and equipment to 19 countries to simultaneously supported seven different military operations, including Operation Southern Watch, Operation Northern Watch, Operation Joint Forge, Operation Noble Eagle, Operation Deep Freeze, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

In 2005, the Base Realignment and Closure commission mandated the end of the flying era for the 181st Wing. On 8 September 2007, the 181st Fighter Wing flew their last training mission out of Terre Haute Field International Airport.

The wing squadrons were redesignated, now being an Distributive Ground Station (DGS) and an Air Support Operations Squadron (ASOS). The DGS is an intelligence based mission, monitoring near real time video feed from unmanned aerial vehicles hovering the skies over any military area of operation. The service members process, exploit, and disseminate the video feed, providing intelligence to the ground commanders and fighting forces. The ASOS brings unity to joint forces fighting in the War on Terror. Their mission is to advise the ground commanders on the best way to utilize assets for close air support. On 3 May 2008 the 181st Fighter Wing was re-designated as the 181st Intelligence Wing.


Major Command

Previous designations

Squadrons assigned

Bases stationed

Aircraft & missiles operated



External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/181st_Intelligence_Wing


Egbert kankeleit

Egbert Kankeleit

Egbert Kankeleit was born in Hamburg, Germany on 16 August 1929. He is the son of Otto Kankeleit and Margarete Kankeleit (née Holl).

Egbert Kankeleit studied nuclear physics in Munich and earned his doctorate in 1961 as one of Heinz Maier-Leibniz’s group. After that he went to CalTech in Pasadena in the role of Senior Research Fellow. From there he followed a call to TH Darmstadt, where he remained until his retirement in 1997.

The Mössbauer spectroscopy had a particular influence on his scientific work. He is the founder of the conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (Konversionselektronen-Mößbauer-Spektroskopie), which he first deployed in the field of nuclear physics (nuclear moments) and later increasingly in the field of materials science (isomeric shifts). The study of myonic atoms at CERN, as well as parity violation during gamma decay and positron research at the Society for Heavy Ion Research (GSI: Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) also belong to the central aspects of his research.

The miniaturised Mössbauer spectrometer (MIMOS) was developed in Egbert Kankeleit’s team and was successfully deployed during the recent Mars missions.

The interdisciplinary Team of Natural Science, Technology and Security (IANUS) was brought into being by Egbert Kankeleit together with colleagues from other faculties. Based on scientific and technological themes which formed the backbone of the team, IANUS also illuminated ethical questions, such as those concerning the role and responsibility of scientists in the Atomic Age. In the framework of peace and conflict studies, IANUS concerns itself with questions such as the non-proliferation of nuclear materials. The group was awarded the Götting Peace Prize (Göttinger Friedenspreis) in 2000.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egbert_Kankeleit


European Forum for Urban Security

The European Forum for Urban Security (EFUS) is a non-governmental organization (NGO), gathering 300 local authorities. It aims at reinforcing crime prevention policies and promoting the role of local authorities in the development of national and European policies.

The organisation was created in 1987 in Barcelona, under the aegis of the Council of Europe and on the impulse of Mr Gilbert Bonnemaison (former Mayor of the city of Épinay-sur-Seine and co-founder of the French prevention policy.

The Forum works with the majority of the 27 countries, members of the European Union and it has a consultative status at the European Commission, the Council of Europe and the United Nations. Furthermore, it is a member of the group of experts on the theme “Human trafficking”, since 2003 and of the group “Political needs for pertinent data in criminology and criminal justice fields”. The Efus is the co-founder and secretary of the International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC), and a member of the International Scientific and Professional Advisory (ISPAC) of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme. In 1998, the Efus was awarded an honorific prize by the . In other continents, the Forum supports the creation of national Forums especially in Africa and Southern America. Notes and references


The Efus aims to:


The Efus works on all major themes linked to urban safety and builds up a network of European local authorities, through the exchange of practices and knowledge, cooperation and training. The Efus is also a link between local authorities and institutions at a national, European and international level. The Efus works to promote the acknowledgement of the role of locally elected officials throughout its programmes, publications and research.

The Saragossa manifesto 800 representatives, from 220 European cities, met in Saragossa in November 2 to 4 of 2006 and adopted the Saragossa manifesto “Security, Democracy and Cities”, in the presence of African, northern American, Latino American and Asian cities. European cities as well as cities of other continents were invited to join them, by signing and implementing the guidelines of this document. “Safety is an essential public asset closely linked to other public assets such as social inclusion and the right to employment, healthcare, education and culture. It is necessary to replace all fear-based strategies with others that promote an active community spirit, an adaptation of the urban territory and the collective development of coexistence. The access to rights fosters the right to security.” (Saragossa manifesto, 2006) Security, democracy and cities. - The Saragossa Manifesto

The Efus Executive Committee The Efus is lead by an Executive Committee of 21 cities, elected every year by its members. Its current President is Guilherme Pinto, Mayor of Matosinhos. European Forum for Urban Security, National Forums National Forums were created in: • FranceItalyBelgiumNetherlandsSpainPortugalGermany

The members of the Efus The members of the Efus benefit from the following services: - Access to a vast network of knowledge, experts, contacts and experiences - Links and easy connections with more than 300 local authorities throughout Europe - Possibility of participating to European projects, thematic seminars, training sessions, international conferences (Paris 1991, Naples 2000, Saragossa 2006) - Adapted training sessions, advices, technical assistance on security issues - Privileged access to the members-only part of the Forum website, gathering all urban security practices in Europe

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Forum_for_Urban_Security

Canon PowerShot A1200

Canon PowerShot

The PowerShot products are a line of consumer and prosumer grade digital cameras, launched by Canon in 1996. The PowerShot line has been successful for Canon, and is one of the best-selling digital camera lines worldwide.

Free software from the Canon Hack Development Kit (CHDK) project allows nearly complete programmatic control of PowerShot cameras, enabling users to add features, up to and including BASIC & Lua scripting.

Some models of Powershot cameras were affected by third party CCD sensors with a design flaw which caused them to fail and display severely distorted images. Canon has offered to repair affected cameras free of charge.




See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canon_PowerShot

Duboisvalia ecuadoria

Duboisvalia ecuadoria

Duboisvalia ecuadoria
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Castniidae
Genus: Duboisvalia
Species: D. ecuadoria
Binomial name
Duboisvalia ecuadoria
(Westwood, 1877)
  • Castnia ecuadoria Westwood, 1877
  • Castnia buckleyi Druce, 1883
  • Gazera albicornis Houlbert, 1917
  • Castnia melanolimbata Strand, 1913
  • Castnia pellonia Druce, 1890
  • Castnia coarctifascia Talbot, 1929
  • Gazera plethoneura Bryk, 1930
  • Castnia strandi Niepelt, 1914
  • Castnia truxilla Westwood, 1877
  • Castnia truxilla fassli Pfeiffer, 1914
  • Castnia pellonia catenigera Pfeiffer, 1917
  • Castnia pellonia extensa Pfeiffer, 1917
  • Castnia pellonia punctimargo Rothschild, 1919

Duboisvalia ecuadoria is a moth in the Castniidae family. It is found in Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.



Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duboisvalia_ecuadoria

Burgruine Landsee

Burgruine Landsee


Sângeorgiu de Pădure

Sângeorgiu de Pădure
Landscape near the town

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 46°25′49″N 24°50′30″E / 46.43028°N 24.84167°E
Country Romania
County Mureş County
Status Town
- Mayor András Tar (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania)
- Total 7,142 km (2,757.5 sq mi)
Population (2002)
- Total 5,492
- Density 78/km (202/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
- Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code 547535
Area code(s) +40 265
Website Mayor's Office website

Sângeorgiu de Pădure (Hungarian: Erdőszentgyörgy, Hungarian pronunciation: [’ɛrdøːsɛnɟørɟ], meaning "St. George of the Forest") is a town in Mureş County, Romania.

Bezid (Bözöd), Bezidu Nou (Bözödújfalu) and Loţu (Lóc) villages are administratively part of the town.


The first written record of the town is preserved in a papal tithe applotment list from 1333 in which mention is made of a priest „de Sancto Georgio” who paid a sum of 6 dinars to the neighboring diocese. In 1347, a man named Erdő, count of the Székelys, and the sons of Erdő of Erdőszentgyörgy were mentioned. In 1442, Anna Herepei, wife of Erdő of Erdewzenthgergh is written about. The village was the estate of Francis I Rákóczi, prince of Transylvania. The Rédey castle was built in 1647. In 1788, Péter Bodor was born here. In 1818-1809, the Rédey castle was rebuilt. In 1913, the official Hungarian name of the village is Erdőszentgyörgy.

Its Romanian name was originally Erdeo-Sângeorgiu, after 1919 Sîngeorgiul de Pădure which later was changed by Romanian authorities to the current official name.

In the mid-1780s as part of the Josephine administrative reform, Marosszék was integrated into Küküllő county, however, the szék-system was restored in 1790. After the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1849, the village formed part of the Kibéd military sub-division of the Marosvásárhely division in the Udvarhely military district. Between 1861–1876, the former Marosszék was restored. As a result of the administrative reform in 1876, the village fell within Nyárádszereda district of Maros-Torda County in the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it became part of Romania and fell within Mureş-Turda County during the interwar period. In 1940, the Second Vienna Award granted the Northern Transylvania to Hungary and it was held by Hungary until 1944. Administered by the Soviet authorities after 12 November 1944, the village, together with the rest of Northern Transylvania, came under Romanian administration on 13 March 1945 and became officially part of Romania in 1947. Between 1952 and 1960, the commune fell within the Magyar Autonomous Region, between 1960 and 1968 the Mureş-Magyar Autonomous Region. In 1968, the province was abolished, and since then, the settlement has been part of Mureş County. It became a town in 2004.

The grave of Claudia Rhedey, grandmother of Queen Mary of England, is placed in the crypt of the Reformed church which was renovated in 1936 from donation of Queen Mary of England, great-granddaughter of count Rhedey and grandmother of Queen Elisabeth II of Great Britain.British Royal Family.


The commune has an absolute Székely Hungarian majority.

In 1900, the village had, in order of population size, 4,131 Hungarian (91,23%) and 352 Romanian (7,77%) inhabitants. In 1930, the census indicated 2,954 Hungarians (61,17%), 1,194 Romanians (24,73%), 334 Jews (6,92%) and 334 Gypsies (6,92%). As of the 2002 census, 4,169 (75,547%) residents reported themselves as Hungarian, while 1,096 Romanian (19,95%) and 244 Gypsy. As of 2002, 2,121 households were registered in the town along with 1,912 residential buildings.

Historical population of Sângeorgiu de Pădure
3 3543 8824 2774 5284 8296 3605 7145 7155 4925 571

The 2002 Census reported Calvinism being professed by 54.71% of the total population, while 19.61% of the respondents belonged to the Romanian Orthodox Church, 10.34% of the respondents reported themelves as Unitarian, 8.55% as Roman Catholic and 1.07 % as Baptist.


The local Municipal Assembly has 15 members divided into 6 political parties:


Notable people


The town is twinned with:

See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A2ngeorgiu_de_P%C4%83dure

Castnia marcus

Castnius marcus

Castnius marcus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Castniidae
Genus: Castnius
Species: C. marcus
Binomial name
Castnius marcus
(Jordan, 1908)
  • Castnia marcus Jordan, 1908

Castnius marcus is a moth in the Castniidae family. It is found in Peru.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castnius_marcus