Galloping Gertie (song)

Galloping Gertie (song)

This is a famous saloon piano song by Sam Fonteyn. It is used as the "Play me off, Johnny" music by the Vaudeville characters, Johnny and Vern, on Family Guy. This song shares a name with the nickname of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940), though it is unknown if the bridge got its nickname from this song.

Audio Sample

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galloping_Gertie_(song)

Decuriasuchus quartacolonia


Temporal range: Middle Triassic, Ladinian
Skulls of D. quartacolonia
Scientific classification [ e ]
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Rauisuchia
Family: Prestosuchidae
Genus: Decuriasuchus
França et al., 2011
  • D. quartacolonia França et al., 2011 (type)

Decuriasuchus is an extinct genus of prestosuchid rauisuchian from the Middle Triassic period (Ladinian stage). It is a carnivorous archosaur that lived in what is now southern Brazil. It was first named by Marco Aurélio G. França, Jorge Ferigolo and Max C. Langer in 2011 and the type species is Decuriasuchus quartacolonia. The generic name means "legion of ten crocodile" in Greek in reference to the ten known specimens and the animal's possible group behavior. The specific name refers to the Quarta Colonia region where the fossils were collected.


Decuriasuchus is known from ten specimens, including nine articulated and associated skeletons, three of which have nearly complete skulls. The holotype PV10105a consists of an articulated partial skeleton, lacking scapular girdle and limbs. Eight specimens associated with the holotype, MCN PV10105b-i, and the tenth specimen (MCN PV10004), consists of cranial remains from a different spot in the same locality. The specimens were found in the of the Santa Maria Formation, . The discovery locality is Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Like other rauisuchids, Decuriasuchus was a quadrupedal carnivore that was one of the top predators of its environment. It grew to a length of around 2.5 metres (8.2 ft).


Decuriasuchus is closely related to the genera Prestosuchus and Batrachotomus. A phylogenetic study of the genus placed it in the family Prestosuchidae, but found the Rauisuchia group to be paraphyletic. The study was based on an earlier 2010 analysis of archosaurs. As a rauisuchian, Decuriasuchus is a distant relative of modern crocodilians.


Nine specimens of Decuriasuchus were found in close proximity to each other. A study of the taphonomy of the site (the conditions under which the skeletons became fossilized) indicates that the assemblage represents the single burial of multiple individuals rather than the collection of unrelated remains in one spot over a longer period of time. The congregation of nine individuals in one area suggests that they may have been traveling in a group. If this were the case, Decuriasuchus would be the first known archosaur to exhibit group behavior.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decuriasuchus

István Bognár

István Bognár

István Bognár
Personal information
Full name István Bognár
Date of birth 6 May 1991 (age 19)
Place of birth Hungary
Height 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)
Playing position Midfielder
Club information
Current club Újpest FC
Number 17
Youth career
Újpest FC
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
2009- Újpest FC 0 (0)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (Goals).

István Bognár (born May 6, 1991) is a Hungarian football (midfielder) player who currently plays for Újpest FC.

Club career

He playes in Újpest FC B, but is a member of Újpest FC first squad. He is the son of former Hungarian international player György Bognár.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istv%C3%A1n_Bogn%C3%A1r

Bakke v. university of california

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Seal of the United States Supreme Court.svg
Supreme Court of the United States
Argued October 8, 1977
Decided June 28, 1978
Full case name Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke
Citations 438 U.S. 265 (more)
98 S. Ct. 2733; 57 L. Ed. 2d 750; 1978 U.S. LEXIS 5; 17 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1000; 17 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P8402
Prior history Certiorari to the Supreme Court of California. Bakke v. Regents of University of Cal., 18 Cal. 3d 34, 132 Cal. Rptr. 680, 553 P.2d 1152, 1976 Cal. LEXIS 336 (1976)
The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional.
Court membership
Case opinions
Majority Powell (Parts I and V-C), joined by Brennan, White, Marshall, and Blackmun
Plurality Powell (Part III-A), joined by White
Concur/dissent Brennan, White, Marshall, Blackmun
Concur/dissent White
Concur/dissent Marshall
Concur/dissent Blackmun
Concur/dissent Stevens, joined by Burger, Stewart, Rehnquist
Laws applied
U.S. Const. amend. XIV

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) was a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States on the permissible scopefactors in an admissions program, but only for the purpose of improving the learning environment through diversity in accordance with the university's constitutionally protected First Amendment right to Academic Freedom (at page 311-315 of the opinion.)

The "diversity in the classroom" justification for considering race as "one" of the factors in admissions policies was different from the original purpose stated by UC Davis Medical School, whose special admissions program under review was designed to ensure admissions of traditionally discriminated-against minorities. UC Davis Medical School originally developed the program to (i) reduce the historic deficit of traditionally disfavored minorities in medical schools and the medical profession, (ii) counter the effects of societal discrimination, (iii) increase the number of physicians who will practice in communities currently underserved, and (iv) obtain the educational benefits that flow from an ethnically diverse student body.

There was a plurality opinion in this case with the determining vote lying with Justice Lewis Powell, who had an intermediate opinion. Justice Powell stated, "If petitioner’s purpose is to assure within its student body some specified percentage of a particular group merely because of its race or ethnic origin, such a preferential purpose must be rejected not as insubstantial, but as facially invalid." Powell said, "Preferring members of any one group for no reason other than race or ethnic origin is discrimination for its own sake." The 4th goal, obtaining the educational benefits that flow from an ethnically diverse student body, is the only goal that Powell said was clearly a “permissible goal for an institution of higher education," and for this reason, it did not survive strict scrutiny. Also, because this quota focused on solely ethnic diversity, he said it would "hinder rather than further attainment of genuine diversity." Because the Medical School had applied a quota system (rather than a plus factor or other affirmative action system), Powell found it invalid. Powell noted, however, with emphasis that, "a properly tailored affirmative action program designed to promote diversity could survive strict judicial scrutiny."


Allan Bakke, a 32-year-old white male, applied to twelve medical schools in 1973. He was a National Merit Scholar at Coral Gables High, an all-white school in Florida. He was accepted as an undergraduate at the University of Minnesota, deferring tuition costs by joining ROTC. He graduated with the GPA of 3.51. In order to fulfill his ROTC requirements, he joined the Marines and later served a seven-month tour of duty in Vietnam. In 1967, he received an honorable discharge with the rank of Captain. He worked as an engineer at NASA. He stated that his interest in medicine started in Vietnam, which increased at NASA, as he had to consider the problems of space flight and the human body while at NASA. But twelve medical schools rejected his application for admission. Bakke first applied to University of Southern California and Northwestern in 1972 and both rejected him, making a point of his age. Northwestern wrote "his age was above their stated limit." His 1973 application to Davis reflects his anxiety about his age, referring to his four years of sacrifice for his country as a setback and cause of his late interest in medicine. His quantitative criterion for acceptance was considered excellent. He took the Medical College Admissions Test, scoring in the top three percent. He also maintained a science GPA of 3.44 and an overall GPA of 3.46 after taking science courses at night to qualify for medical school. He should have been concerned about his age, for he was rejected despite the fact that his scores were well above the scores of an average admittee at University of California Davis medical school. A Davis Faculty member from Bakke’s 1973 interview believed that he was a “well-qualified candidate for admission whose main handicap is the unavoidable fact that he is now 33 years of age.”

Allan Bakke applied to University of California, Davis School of Medicine in 1973 and 1974, but was rejected in both years, although "special applicants" were admitted with significantly lower academic scores than Bakke's. However, the "regular committee often turned down well-qualified minority applicants" claiming that a 3.4GPA was not a 3.6 GPA. These special applicants were admitted under provisions either for members of a "minority groups" (such as Blacks or Hispanics), or as "economically and/or educationally disadvantaged" - but although many disadvantaged Caucasians had applied under this second provision, none had been successful. In 1974, in particular, the special admissions committee explicitly stated they would consider only candidates who were from explicitly designated minority groups.

After his second rejection, Bakke filed an action in state court for mandatory, injunctive, and declaratory relief to compel his admission to Davis, alleging that the special admissions program operated to exclude him on the basis of his race in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

UC Davis Medical School counter-claimed for a declaration that its special admissions program was lawful.

The trial court found that the special program operated as a racial quota, because minority applicants in that program were rated only against one another, and 16 places in the class of were reserved for the clause. Because the Medical School could not satisfy its burden of demonstrating that, absent the special program, Bakke would not have been admitted, the court ordered his admission to the Medical School. Bakke began his studies at the University of California Medical School at Davis in fall of 1978, graduated in 1982, and later served as a resident at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.


It is important to note that there were two opposing 5-person plurality opinions and then Justice Powell's. Each of the 4-person plurality opinions concurred only with parts of Justice Powell's opinion and not the same parts.

Justices Brennan, White, Marshall and Blackmun concluded in one plurality opinion that race could be used as a factor when it was for the purpose of remedying substantial chronic underrepresentation of certain minorities in the medical profession.

Chief Justice Burger, Justice Stewart, and Justice Rehnquist joined Justice Stevens' view that whether race could ever be a factor was not at issue in the case, but that the special admissions program under consideration violated Title VI because it excluded from consideration an applicant on the basis of race.

Justice Powell concluded that though race could not be the basis for excluding a candidate, race may be one of many factors in admissions considerations.

The issue before the Court was twofold: 1. Whether Bakke's exclusion from consideration in UC Davis Medical School special admissions program for minorities because he was white was unconstitutional and a violation of section VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and 2. if it was unconstitutional, should UC Davis Medical School be required to admit him.

Justice Powell concluded that excluding a candidate from consideration solely on the basis of race was unconstitutional, no matter what the purpose, and since UC Davis Medical School could not prove that, even without the special admissions program, Bakke would never have been admitted anyway, UC Davis was compelled to admit Bakke.

Though the Stevens' plurality opinion did not concur with Powell's assertion that race could be one factor among many in admissions' considerations, it did agree with Powell that the UC Davis special admissions program excluding Bakke because he was white was unconstitutional. Stevens' plurality also concurred with that part of Powell's opinion that UC Davis should be required to admit Bakke.

Therefore, though there was no clear-cut majority view on using race as a factor in general, there was a 5-4 split in which the majority (the Stevens plurality and Powell) agreed that the UC Davis Special admissions program was unconstitutional because it excluded applicants on the basis of race. Similarly the same 5-4 split concurred that UC Davis be required to admit Bakke.

Some refer to using race as a basis to exclude applicants as a racial quota system. An institution's special admissions program that is designed to admit people of a certain ethnic group and excludes consideration of candidates from other ethnic groups is in effect an assurance that the institution will admit a certain number of the members from a specified ethnic group, i.e. the institution meets a quota of members of those designated ethnic groups. Justice Powell, who announced the judgment of the court, stated that the appellation of the process is irrelevant (at page 289.)

Powell found that quotas insulated minority applicants from competition with the regular applicants and were thus unconstitutional because they discriminated against non-minority applicants. Powell however stated that universities could use race as a plus factor. He cited the Harvard College Admissions Program which had been filed as an amicus curiae as an example of a constitutionally valid affirmative action program which took into account all of an applicant's qualities including race in a "holistic review".

Title VI of the civil rights statute prohibits racial discrimination in any institution that receives federal funding. Justices Burger, Stewart, Rehnquist, and Stevens supported a strict interpretation and, thus, ruled in favor of Bakke. Justices Brennan, Marshall, Blackmun, and White, however, disagreed with a rigid and literal interpretation of Title VI. The nature of this split opinion created controversy over whether Powell's opinion was binding. However, in 2003, in Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court affirmed Powell's opinion, rejecting "quotas", but allowing race to be one "factor" in college admissions to meet the compelling interest of diversity.


1978 Case

  1. Dreyfuss, Joel (1979). The Bakke Case: the Politics of Inequality. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  2. Dreyfuss, Joel (1979). The Bakke Case: the politics of inequality. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. pg16.
  3. Dreyfuss, Joel (1979). The Bakke Case: the politics of inequality. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. pg 13 & 16.
  4. Dreyfuss, Joel (1979). The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  5. Dreyfuss, Joel (1979). The Bakke Case: the politics of inequality. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. pg. 42.
  6. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=438&page=265

External links

  • Text of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) is available from: Justia · Findlaw

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regents_of_the_University_of_California_v._Bakke

Isaac Rubin

Zick Rubin

Isaac Michael "Zick" Rubin (born 1944) is an American social psychologist, lawyer, and author. He is "widely credited as the author of the first empirical measurement of love," for his work distinguishing feelings of like from feelings of love via Rubin's Scales of Liking and Loving. Science Progress stated, "The major breakthrough in research on love came from the pioneer psychometric work of Zick Rubin."

He has also published on disclosing to consequential strangers. According to The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relationships, Rubin "conducted influential early studies on disclosure reciprocity in naturalistic settings, such as in airport departure lounges and at bus stops." His work also examined the development of friendship among toddlers.

Life and education

Rubin earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University in 1965 and a Ph.D. from University of Michigan in 1969.

In the 1980s, Rubin entered Harvard Law School, earning his law degree and being admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1988.

In the 2001 edition of The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, Rubin was listed as having died in 1997. In 2011 he wrote a New York Times op-ed about his attempts to correct the error after it had been repeated in a Wikia profile about him.


Social psychology

Rubin won the Socio-psychological Prize from the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1969. He was director of the Boston Couples Study, described by the Encyclopedia of Human Relationships as "a pioneering longitudinal study" that integrated multiple research methods as it followed the development of relationships over time. Rubin taught at Harvard University from 1967 to 1976 and was the Louis and Frances Salvage Professor of Social Psychology at Brandeis University from 1977 to 1985 before entering law school.

Rubin defended tax-funded work on love after Senator William Proxmire criticized the use of National Science Foundation funding on studies of love at Harvard, the University of Minnesota, and University of Wisconsin. In 1974, Proxmire had named psychologist Ellen Berscheid of University of Minnesota as recipient of his first Golden Fleece Award for her work on love. Proxmire called it "a futile and wasteful attempt to explain the impossible." Rubin defended his colleagues, saying Proxmire was "taking advantage of the fact that it is easy to trivialize and sensationalize such matters as these."

Rubin sued Boston Magazine for copyright infringement after they copied the questions from his liking and loving scales without permission in a 1977 article. He won the case in 1981 and prevailed on appeal.


Rubin was a lawyer at Palmer & Dodge LLP and then at Hill & Barlow before opening The Law Office of Zick Rubin in 2003. He specializes in legal issues related to copyright, trademark, media, and higher education.

Rubin is a member of the Copyright Society of the United States, the Authors Guild, the Text and Academic Authors Association, and the National Association of College and University Attorneys.

Selected publications


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zick_Rubin

Dennis Chin

Dennis Chin

Dennis Chin
Personal information
Full name Dennis Chin
Date of birth June 4, 1987 (age 23)
Place of birth Oviedo, Florida, United States
Height 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m)
Playing position Forward
Club information
Current club Orlando City
Number 15
Youth career
2005–2008 Rollins Tars
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
2005–2010 Central Florida Kraze 56 (10)
2011– Orlando City 0 (0)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of March 31, 2011.
† Appearances (Goals).

Dennis Chin (born June 4, 1987 in Oviedo, Florida) is an America soccer player who currently plays for Orlando City in the USL Professional Division.


College and Amateur

Chin attended Oviedo High School in Oviedo, Florida, and played college soccer at Rollins College from 2005 through 2007. He scores 7 goals and 3 assists in each of his junior and senior years (2006 and 2007). During his time at Rollins, he also played for the Central Florida Kraze of the USL Premier Development League from 2005 to 2010.


Chin turned professional when he signed with Orlando City of the USL Professional Division in 2011.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Chin

Dicoy Williams

Dicoy Williams

Dicoy Williams
Personal information
Date of birth October 7, 1986 (age 24)
Place of birth Kingston, Jamaica
Height 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
Playing position Defender
Club information
Current club Toronto FC
Number 31
Youth career
2005 Santos
2005–2006 Arnett Gardens
2007–2008 Harbour View
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
2009–2011 Harbour View 42 (5)
2011– Toronto FC 2 (0)
National team
2009– Jamaica 7 (0)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of April 23, 2011.

† Appearances (Goals).

‡ National team caps and goals correct as of March 7, 2011

" He's a good, young up-and-coming player. He reads the game very well, he's very strong and gets in his tackles. We just want him to focus and keep his head because we see him as one for the future.”

-Jamaica coach Theodore Whitmore speaking about Dicoy Williams, November 16, 2009

Dicoy Williams (born October 7, 1986 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a Jamaican footballer who currently plays for Toronto FC in Major League Soccer.


Youth and Amateur

Williams started his career in the youth ranks of Jamaica's Santos FC. He also went on to play for the youth teams of Arnett Gardens FC and Harbour View FC.


Williams played at a senior level for Santos FC and Harbour View FC in the Digicel Premier League. Williams was a key contributor for Harbour View helping the club capture the Jamaican National Premier League in 2010. After impressing with Harbour View FC Williams went on trial with Norwegian Division One side Mjøndalen IF during the 2010 season.

In early March 2011 Williams continued to explore overseas options going on trial with Major League Soccer side Toronto FC. He impressed coach Aron Winter and was signed by Toronto FC on March 31, 2011. Two days later Williams made his debut for Toronto as a second half sub for Nana Attakora in a 1-1 home draw against Chivas USA.


Dicoy Williams made his international debut for Jamaica on August 12, 2009 in a scoreless draw against Ecuador played at Giants Stadium.


Harbour View FC

See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicoy_Williams

Giannini Automobili

Giannini Automobili

Società Meccanica Industriale Giannini Automobili S.p.A.
Founded Rome, (March 21, 1963)
Founder(s) Attilio & Domenico Giannini
Headquarters Via delle idrovore della Magliana 57, Rome, Italy
Products Automotive
Operating income 1,795,000 (2007)
Website gianniniautomobili.com

Giannini Automobili S.p.A. is an Italian tuning company as well as a past producer of its own cars. Their focus has mainly been on Fiat cars. It was originally founded in 1920 by brothers and . The company headquarters are in Rome, Italy.



Originally founded in 1920 as a garage, in 1922 Giannini became part of Itala's service network. Through this collaboration and the skills acquired thereby, Giannini was able to enter and win its class with an Itala Tipo 61 in the first edition of the Mille Miglia (1927), commissioned by Marquis Pellegrini.


Giannini expanded their scope during the thirties by working on smaller cars, in particular the popular Fiat 500 "Topolino". In addition to engine modifications, the brake arrangements were also changed. In 1938 Giannini broke a number of world records with a single seat racer powered by one of these 499 cc engines, equipped with a Siata head.


After World War II, the Giannini brothers began building their own engines. In 1947 they built a three-cylinder direct injection diesel truck engine, called the 3A. This produced 40 PS (29 kW) at 3,000 rpm. It was not a huge success, only selling a few hundred.

In 1948, the Giannini brothers abandoned the transport sector, preferring instead to focus on something closer to their hearts: competition. Building on over a decade's experience with Topolino engines and with the aid of young engineer Carlo Gianini (sic), who fathered the CNA Rondine motorcycle project, the 750 cc G1 engine was developed. The G1 met with considerable success at the 1949 Mille Miglia. Gianini then developed the twin-cam G2 engine which saw use in the Giaur, an acronym for Giannini and Urania. The Giaur project was codeveloped with . Giannini engines were also used by other "Etceterinis" such as Gilco and Stanga. The G2 powered Giannini's entry in the 1950 Mille Miglia, which led to a class victory in the hands of Maggiorelli and Magior.


In the fifties Giannini opened a number of new ventures across Italy, such as Fiat sales outlets and garages.


For various reasons, and in spite of good sales, the company found itself in serious financial difficulties which led to its closing in 1961. The two brothers and their children disagreed on which direction to take and thus created two new separate companies: Attilio's Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini S.p.A. (Attilio) and Domenico's Giannini Automobili S.p.A..

Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini S.p.A.

Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini S.p.A. focused on the field of concepualizing, designing, and engineering prototypes and engines, abandoning entirely service and maintenance. This choice, despite much excellent work, was to prove fatal to the company. Attilio's Costruzioni Meccaniche Giannini was to close for good in 1971.

Giannini Automobili S.p.A.

Giannini Automobili S.p.A. retained Giannini's distribution network and series of repair shops. Customization work was drastically curtailed, now consisting only of minor surgery. In 1963 Domenico began modifying standard cars and selling conversion kits: in the same year the 500 TV, Giannini's tuned version of the tiny Fiat 500, was also presented. Abarth's more famous 595 appeared in the same year. Other models were also produced during the Sixties, nearly all on Fiat basis. The sixties were good years for the company, both in terms of tuning work and race participation, marred somewhat by Domenico Giannini's 16 March 1967 death of a heart attack.

Volfango Polverelli enters

After the death of a new somewhat troubled period commenced for the house. The problems were largely of management and organization, leading the company directors to call in an outsider to straighten out the company, in the form of lawyer . While initially reluctant to take on the job, a love for automobiles made him ever more involved until he took sole ownership of the company in 1973. New ownership also brought changes, Volfango putting his three sons in charge of various departments. A new engineer, , with experience in aeronautic as well as automotive engineering, created a new direction for Giannini in the early eighties. Tuning kits for new Fiats like the 126, Ritmo, and the Panda appeared, and Giannini partook (directly and indirectly) in lots of competitions.

However, Italy's tuning corporations had a hard time in the 1980s. In addition to ever rising costs, companies now made their own sporting models of family cars. To compound the financial troubles, Volfango Polverelli passed away with respiratory troubles on 13 July 1984. To resolve the crisis, in 1985 Giannini decided to stop creating and modifying bodywork, henceforth focusing on "personalizing" cars such as the Uno, Tipo, and the Panda. This, the "Look" program, mainly consisted of more luxurious upholstery, paintjobs, and equipment, although there were also modified bumpers and wings.

Giannini today

Today Giannini works directly with Fiat, primarily being responsible for after-sales service work in the Italian market. Giannini also has a long standing relationship creating special vehicles for the Guardia di Finanza and Italy's Ministero dell'Interno and since 1996 is a member of the ANFIA (Associazone Nazionale Filiera Industria Automobilistica, the Italian Association of the Automotive Industry) Coachbuilders Group.

Giannini in motor sport

Cars modified by Giannini were a constant presence on Italian racecourses in the sixties, seventies, and eighties, as this was why they had been developed. In the sixties, Giannini had an exciting rivalry with Abarth, both entering modified Fiat 500s. Giannini, however, always played second fiddle to the more famous "scorpions".

In 1983 and 1984 Giannini officially won two World Sportscar Championships, in the C-Junior category. In reality, this was merely a ploy to allow Carma, a tiny engine manufacturer, to join Sportscar racing. Entry was reserved to manufacturers recognized by the FIA, which is why Giannini lent their name to Facetti and Finotto, the men behind Carma. While the turbocharged 1.4-litre four-cylinder was labelled "Giannini", there was no actual involvement from the Roman company.

Main Giannini products


  • Much of this page incorporates information from Giannini on the Italian-language Wikipedia. Retrieved March 31, 2011.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giannini_Automobili

Comin Helygain a Glaswelltiroedd Treffynnon / Halkyn and Holywell Common

Comin Helygain a Glaswelltiroedd Treffynnon / Halkyn and Holywell Common

Comin Helygain a Glaswelltiroedd Treffynnon / Halkyn and Holywell Common is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the preserved county of Clwyd, north Wales.

See also

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comin_Helygain_a_Glaswelltiroedd_Treffynnon_/_Halkyn_and_Holywell_Common

Hispano HA-1109-M1L

Hispano Aviación HA-1112

HA-1112 K. 1. L Tripala
Role Fighter
Manufacturer Messerschmitt
Hispano Aviación
First flight 1951
Retired 1965
Status Retired
Primary user Spanish Air Force
Developed from Messerschmitt Bf 109

The Hispano Aviación HA-1109 and HA-1112 were license-built versions of the Messerschmitt Bf 109G-2 developed in Spain during and after WWII.

Design and development

The Spanish government in 1942 arranged a manufacturing licence with Messerschmitt AG to build the Bf 109G-2, with DB605A engines, propellers, instruments, and weapons to be supplied from Germany. This proved impossible, as Germany was incapable of meeting her own needs, let alone Spain's; in the event, only twenty-five airframes (minus their tails) and not even half the necessary drawings were delivered.

As a result, Hispano substituted the 1,300 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Z-89 engine, which flew at Barcelona in 1944, while the first HA-1109-J1L made its maiden flight 2 March 1945 at Seville, using a VDM prop and lash-up engine mounting. The other twenty-four airframes were flown during 1947-9 with props, but never became operational.

A developed version, with an improved installation for the Hispano-Suiza 12Z-17 engine, appeared in May 1951 as the HA-1112-K1L. Fitted with a three bladed propeller, it was nicknamed Tripala ("three blades"). Its armament consisted of one or two 12.7mm Breda machineguns and Pilatus eight-packs of 80mm rockets.

It first flew in 1951, and although 200 units were planned, only 65 were ever built. The Hispano engine was an upright V12 in contrast to the inverted V12 Daimler-Benz DB 601 & 605 engines used in the Bf 109. Being however of compact design, it fitted the airframe of the Bf 109 well, representing it in the German 1957 film "Star of Africa" about Luftwaffe ace Hans-Joachim Marseille. In the original design, an asymmetric vertical fin with an airfoiled profile had been introduced starting with the Bf 109F to produce a slight left movement of the tail, which counteracted the left-side torque reaction from the Daimler-Benz engine's counterclockwise rotation. Since this was left unchanged in the Buchón, and the Hispano V12 powered a clockwise-turning propeller instead, the combination of the airfoiled fin and the clockwise-turning propeller created a hard-to-counteract right swing on takeoff, since the fin and the propeller essentially worked in the same direction.

A second version, the HA-1110-K1L, was a two-place tandem trainer model.


The final variant was the HA-1112-M1L Buchón (Pouter), which is both a male dove or a pelican in Spanish. It first flew 29 March 1954. The 1112-M1L was equipped with the 1,600 hp Rolls-Royce Merlin 500-45 surplus bargain engine and Rotol propeller. This clumsy though reliable "power-egg" WW2 bomber engine had a P-40-like deep chin intake, that ruined the sleek lines of the Bf 109's airframe visually. As such, this plane was an improvised assembly of outdated components for the specific purpose of controlling Spanish colonial territories in Africa where a higher level of technology was unnecessary, and moreover not available in isolated Spain at the time. Its armament consisted of two 20 mm Hispano-Suiza 404/408 cannons and two Oerlikon or Pilatus eight-packs of 80 mm rockets. It remained in service until 27 December 1965.

HA-1112-M1Ls remained in flying condition until the mid-1960s. This made them available for theatrical use, disguised as Bf 109Es and Gs in movies like Battle of Britain, Memphis Belle, and The Tuskegee Airmen. Remarkably, Buchons also played the Bf 109's opposition, the Hawker Hurricane, in one scene in Battle of Britain.

It has crashed two times in its career and has been rebuilt each time.





See also

Related development


Monográficos Aéreos: H.A. 1112-M1L "Buchón" - Pedro Miguel Paniagua Magán - ISBN: 978-84-921179-0-1

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispano_Aviaci%C3%B3n_HA-1112

Funky Flute

Muzical Madness

Muzical Madness
Studio album by Jimmy Z
Released January 1, 1991
Recorded 1990
Genre Rock
Hip hop
Length 49:53
Label Ruthless Records
Producer Dr. Dre
Jimmy Z
Jimmy Z chronology

Muzical Madness
Caught Inside

Muzical Madness is the second album by rock/funk musician, Jimmy Z. The album was released on January 1, 1991 for Ruthless Records and was produced by Dr. Dre, Eazy-E and Jimmy Z. This album is one of the few, if not the only album released by Ruthless Records that is not entirely hip hop based. The album was neither a commercial nor critical success, however the song, "Funky Flute", which featured Dr. Dre, gained some minor success.

Track listing

  1. "Prelude" feat. Dr. Dre- 1:07
  2. "Whatever You Want"- 4:24
  3. "Funky Flute" feat. Dr. Dre- 4:45
  4. "Phone Sexxx"- 4:43
  5. "Reeperbahn"- 4:21
  6. "Reazons"- 3:34
  7. "Who'z Leroy"- 3:36
  8. "Crazy You"- 3:28
  9. "Watching You"- 3:50
  10. "Summertime"- 4:24
  11. "Evil"- 4:09
  12. "Hip Hop Harmonica"- 4:22
  13. "Muzical Madness"- 3:03

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muzical_Madness

Cele Hahn

Cele Hahn

Cele Hahn

Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from the 4th Hampden District
In office
Preceded by Michael Knapik
Succeeded by Donald Humason, Jr.

Born March 21, 1942
Sioux City, Iowa(age 69)
Political party Republican
Residence Westfield, Massachusetts
Alma mater University of Iowa
Occupation Broadcaster

Cele Hahn (born March 21, 1942 in Sioux City, Iowa) is an American broadcaster and politician who represented the 4th Hampden District in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1995–2003.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cele_Hahn