Sony pictures animation

Sony Pictures Animation

Sony Pictures Animation
Type Subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment
Industry CGI animation
Motion pictures
Founded May 2002
Headquarters Culver City, California, USA
Key people Michelle Raimo Kouyate, President
Products Animated films
Owner(s) Sony
Parent Sony Pictures Entertainment
Website www.sonypicturesanimation.com

Sony Pictures Animation is an American computer-animated film production company owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment, founded in May 2002. It is working closely with Sony Pictures Imageworks, which takes care of the digital production. Theatrical releases are distributed by Columbia Pictures, and direct-to-video releases are distributed by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

Their first feature film Open Season was released on September 29, 2006 (along with some direct-to-video sequels Open Season 2 and Open Season 3). The SPA logo seen at the beginning of their movies features original music composed by James Newton Howard. Its most successful movie to date is The Smurfs. However, its most critically acclaimed film is Arthur Christmas, which it co-produced with Aardman Animations.


In 2001, Sony Pictures Entertainment considered selling off its visual effects facility Sony Pictures Imageworks. After failing to find a suitable buyer, and having been impressed with the CGI sequences created for Stuart Little 2, and seen great box office success of Shrek and Monsters, Inc., SPI was reconsidered to become an animation studio. Astro Boy, which had been in development at Sony since 1997 as a live-action film, was set to be SPI's first all-CGI film. In May 2002, Sony Pictures Animation was established to develop characters, stories and movies, with SPI taking over the digital production while maintaining its visual effects production. Meanwhile, SPI produced two short films, The ChubbChubbs! and Early Bloomer, as a result of testing its strengths and weakness in producing all-CG animation.

On its first anniversary, Sony Pictures Animation announced a full slate of animated projects in development: Open Season, an adaptation of a Celtic folk ballad Tam Lin, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, Surf's Up, and a feature length version of the short film The ChubbChubbs!.

Its first full feature film was Open Season; it was released in September 2006 and it became the studios #2 home entertainment film in 2007 and followed by two direct-to-video sequels: Open Season 2 and Open Season 3. Its second film, Surf's Up was released in June 2007. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, and won two Annie Awards. A motion captured animated film Neaderthals, written and produced by Jon Favreau, was cancelled sometime in 2008, after four years in development. SPA's first 3D movie, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, was released in September 2009, and was nominated for four Annie Awards including Best Animated Feature. The Smurfs (2011) was the studio's first CGI/live-action hybrid and the most successful release. SPA's parent company Sony Pictures Entertainment has partnered in 2007 with Aardman Animations to finance, co-produce and distribute upcoming feature films. The first film made in this parthership, a computer-animated film Arthur Christmas, was released in November 2011.

The studio is currently in production with Aardman Animations on a stop-motion film The Pirates! Band of Misfits (2012). SPA is also working on its own films, Hotel Transylvania (2012), The Smurfs 2 (2013) and The Familiars (2014), and has many other projects in development, including Popeye, a sequel to Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs and Rollercoaster Tycoon.


Feature films

Released films


Short films


External links

Produced with
Aardman Animations
Upcoming films
Direct-to-video Short films Franchises

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sony_Pictures_Animation&oldid=465694516

601st Tactical Control Wing

601st Tactical Control Wing

601st Tactical Control Wing
601st Tactical Control Wing - Emblem.png
Emblem of the 601st Tactical Control Wing
Active 1965-1995
Country United States United States
Branch Flag of the United States Air Force.png Air Force
Role Tactical Aircraft Control
Part of Seventeenth Air Force

The 601st Tactical Control Wing is an inactive United States Air Force organization. Its last assignment was with the Seventeenth Air Force, being stationed at Sembach Air Base, West Germany. It was inactivated on 30 April 1995.


The mission of the 601st Tactical Control Wing (TCW) was to provide an effective European Tactical Air Control System (ETACS) for the Commander-In-Chief United States Air Forces in Europe (CINCUSAFE) and Commander, Allied Air Forces Central Europe (COMAAFCE).

To provide this service, the wing employed a number of resources to include that of a mobile radar network, flying operations in the form of CH-53C "Super Jolly " helicopters, and a smattering of other elements to include several Forward Air Control Posts (FACPs). Over the entire spectrum of wing operations, the 60lst TCW ultimately took in the tasks of controlling Offensive missions against ground targets, handling Defensive missions for air-to-air intercepts, supplying surveillance of airspace both in and outside the Central Region, and providing valuable interface support for European Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) sorties.

601st Tactical Control Group

601st Tactical Control Wing

The 60lst Tactical Control Wing was organized at Sembach Air Base, West Germany, on 1 July 196B. The new wing assumed the missions of the 601st TCG.

On 1 November 1968, several of the Central Region's fixed radar sites came under the wing's control as the 86th Air Division relinauished responsibility for its three subordinate AC&WS squadrons. These fixed elements were the 606th AC&W5 (a reporting post at Doebraberg), the 615th AC&WS (a control and reporting post at Birkenfeld Air Station), and the 616th AC&WS (a control and reporting post at Wasserkuppe).

Several other significant events also occurred on 1 November 1968 as wing FACPs began converting to the new "two dimensional" TPS-44 radars and several detacrents were activated. The newly activated detachments at 3 (Freising) and 6 (Giebelstadt) provided operational assistance at fixed radar sites owned by the German Air Force (GAF). The third detachment activated, Det 4 at Ramstein AB, was a consolidated field maintenance facility for the USAFE 412L radar system.

On 27 June 1969, the first of three AN/TPS-43 radar sets planned for wing mobile radar unit use was accepted by Det 8, 601st TCS (later to become the 603rd TCS). Work on the conversion plan for replacing the AN/TPS-44 with the "three dimensional" TPS-43 at the GOlst TCS and both CRPs began in early 1969. However, numerous problems arose which precluded the plan from being completed quickly. Particularly, a firm delivery date could not be established for the first radar which was to be used as a training device. Because of this, an Air Training Command team could not establish a firm school start date to train wing personnel. Also, an interface kit being developed by Westinghouse was required to allow the use of the TPS-43 until the wing received the new TSQ-91V operations centrals, expected to be delivered in 1971 though actually received in February 1972. These problems kept the wing from beginning the conversion until nine months later.

Yet another major equipment modification occurred on 1 September 1969. A modification was completed in computer programming which created 4,096 possible codes for aircraft identification. This gave each aircraft in the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force (4 ATAF) region (Southern are of West Germany) a different code thus providing a more positive identification capability. In other organizational areas, on 1 October 1969, Det 1 and Det 2 of the 60Ist DASS were redesignated as detachments 41 and 42 respectively. Further, on this same date, all eight detachments of the 60lst TCS were redesignated as follows: Det 1 became Det 21; Det 2 became Det 22; Det 3 became Det 23; Det 4 became Det 24; Det 4 became Det 24: Det 5 became Det 25; Oet 6 became Det 26; Det 7 became Det 27; and Det 8 became Det 28.

Cessna 0-2 Forward Air Control

For the most part, the wing continued to function as normal going into 1970. But on 15 February, the wing acquired yet another mission with the arrival of three Cessna 0-2A aircraft. The wing was notified in early January of its tasking to develop a airborne Forward Air Controller (FAC) capability. Specific goals assigned to the wing included the development of airborne FAC techniques and training policies and procedures. An airborne PAC meeting was conducted at Seventeenth Air Force on 15 January 1970. It was decided that the 601st TCW would be assigned operational control of FAC aircraft, but that the 26th Tactical Reconnissance Wing (TRW) would be responsible for their maintenance and ground support. Consequently, for the next three years, all FAC aircraft assigned to the 601st TCW would fly out of Ramstein AB. On 2 March 1970, Colonel Roy Peterson, 601st TCW Deputy Commander for Operations, made the first operational flight of a wing-controlled 0-2A aircraft.

The wing's airborne FAC capability was further developed via the employment of an 0-2A aircraft in support of the Army at the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment's Annual Training Tests at the Hohenfels tank gunnery range . This marked the beginning of a new concept of operations for tactical air forces in Europe. Nine days later, the 60Ist TCW deployed its entire fleet of three 0-2A aircraft to Italy in support of Dawn Patrol '70. The operational capabilities of the airborne FACs were displayed to great advantage during both deployments.

Wiesbaden Air Base

Two major events occurred in 1973. On 2 May, HQ USAFE anno unced that the 60lst TCW would move to Wiesbaden AB on approximately 1 June 1973. Specifically, the 601st TCW, 601st TCS, 621st TCF (formerlly Det 27), and the 601st TCMS were to move to Wiesbaden with personnel and equipment, whereas the 601st Supply Squadron, 60lst Civil Engineering Squadron, 60lst Security police, 601st DASS , 601st Transportation Squadron, and 60lst CSG were to move to Wiesbaden without personnel or equipment. It was also announced that an entirely new unit, the 7400th Air Base Group (ABG), wuld be created on 1 June 1973 to operate and maintain Sembach AB.

On 1 June 1973, the wing began its relocation from Sembach to Wiesbaden though the official ceremony marking the move wasn't held until 29 June 1973. The three 0-2A aircraft relocated from Ramstein to Wiesbaden on 16 July 1973 and, seven days later, the Wiesbaden command post assumed all command and control functions for the 60lst TCW. At this time, the Wiesbaden vehicle operations branch assumed responsibility for providing "round robin" resupply of outlying TACS radar units. By 1 October 1973, the wing's relocation to Wiesbaden was essentially complete.

In the other major occurrence during the year, the 601st TCW went through a major reorganization on 1 July 1973. All of the 60lst TCS detachments were activated as numbered flights and squadrons and Oet 1, 60lst TCW, became the 601st TACC Squadron. Two other new units were brought on line in the form of the 601st Tactical Air Support Group (TASG) and the 601st Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron (601st CAMS). The 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron or 20th TASS was not activated until 1 October 1973. On the last day of the year, TACP operating locations of the 60lst and 602nd OASC Squadron's were discontinued. The TACPs were reactivated as detachment operating locations of the 20th TASS.

On 21 June 1974, the wing's first two OV-10A aircraft arrived at Wiesbaden AB from Hurlburt Field. On 12 July 1974, OV-1OA flying operations officially commenced at Wiesbaden AB and three months later, on 10 October 1974, the 20th TASS flew the first OV-10A sortie involved with airborne FAC coverage of an exercise (Certain Pledge). Additional OV-10As arrived from Thailand 11 days later and, on 18 December 1974, use of 0-2A aircraft for wing flying operations was terminated.

Also, in an expansion of airborne mission taskings during 1974, the 601st TASS was activated on 1 July in preparation for the arrival of CH-53C helicopters. However, the first CH-53C would not arrive until six months later. The wing's first two helicopters arrived on 15 January 1975, and flying operations for this newest addition to the wing's aircraft inventory commenced on 6 February. Five additional CH-53Cs were received during the 1ast two months of the year. Also, 12 additional OV-lOAs arrived at Wiesbaden in August 1975, followed by 10 more two months later.

Return to Sembach

However, all these events were overshadowed by the announcement, on 8 August 1975, of project Creek Swap, wherein the wing was notified it would again have to pack its bags and move back to Sembach AB. Thus, in January 1976, after a two year stay at Wiesbaden, the wing began its move en masse back to Sembach AB. The first OV-1OA aircraft from Wiesbaden landed at Sembach on 7 January 1976, and Colonel Fleetwood Pride Jr., the 601st TCW commander, landed another the next day to officially mark the wing's return to Sembach. By 31 March 1976, the wing's move back to Sembach was largely completed.

In an effort to provide mobile radar coverage services for Northern Germany, the 60Ist TCW planned on opening up several new units in 2 ATAF in 1976. Final planning stages for Creek North were completed by 31 March 1976, and, by year's end, the wing's mobile TACS network grew by 40 percent. This expansion project involved the activation of eight units and first took in the development of three new sites in Northern Germany--Hessisch Oldendorf, Bad Muender and Schwelentrup.

Hessisch Oldendorf was the site of a former Royal Netherlands Air Force Hawk missile battery headquarters and the other two locations were its satellite missile launch sites. The 609th TCS and 6l9th TCF were activated at Bad Muender and Schwelentrup respectively on 1 April 1976. A month later, on 1 May 1976, the 629th TCF was also actiVated at Schwelentrup. Equipment for the 609th TCS came from Cannon AFB, New Mexico, and that for its two flights arrived from the l03rd TCF, Orange County, Connecticut, and the 101st TCF, Worchester, Massachusetts. Shortly after, on 21 May 1976, Hessisch Oldendorf Air Station was officially opened under project Creek Control and, on 20 September 1976, the 600th TCG and 600th Combat Support Squadron (CSS) were activated to provide control and support for 2 ATAF radar units. This left three new units yet to be activated. Almost a year later under project Creek Brahman, on 15 March 1977, the 606th TCS, 626th TCF, and 636th TCF were activated at Carl Schurz Kaserne near Bremerhaven. This marked the completion of mobile radar expansion into Northern Germany.

Several aircraft related milestones were also reached in 1976. First, on 4 July, the 704th TASS was activated at Sembach AB as a "Bicentenni al Squadron". Second, on 1 November 1976, wing OV-10A aircraft, pilots from the 20th TASS, and maintenance personnel from the 60Ist CAMS deployed to Zaragoza AB, Spain, to "kick off" a four month weapons training detachment (WTD) deployment nicknamed "Creek Tally". This was the first time wing aircraft deployed to Spain for this type training. In a related operation, the 611th TCF also deployed their FACP to Zaragoza at the same time. While there, the 611th provided radar and radio coverage for dissimilar air combat training missions between Northrop F-5E Tiger lIs of the 527th Tactical Fighter Training aggressor Squadron (TFTAGS) and F-4 Phantoms. Also, the 611th TCF was airlifted in two C-SA Galaxies rather than the C-130s or C-14ls normally used for radar airborne movements.

The major aircraft related event of 1977 involved the arrival of four additional OV-10As from the states on 9 September 1977. Also, the first two wing OV-10As to receive camouflage painting returned to Sembach from Alverca, Portugal, where the work was performed. In 1980, The 601st TASG gained additional CH-53Cs and OV-10As.

Saudi Arabia detachment

War broke out between Iran and Iraq on 22 September 1980. Shortly after, the Saudis requested and received US assistance in the form of various radar elements to ensure that Saudi Arabian airspace was not violated during the on-going hostilities. Indeed, early in October 1980, the 601st TCW received a short notice order to deploy a survey team to Riyadh to assist in setting up a mobile radar network in Saudi Arabia.

Subsequently, stateside TAC elements dispatched a FACP, a TSQ-91V CRP operations central cell, and a TYC-ID MPC to Saudi Arabia. The overall radar operation in Saudi Arabia was collectively known as Elf One.

Actually, Elf One's operation involved three operating locations set up along the eastern edge of the Arabian peninsula on the coast of the Persian Gulf and in the central city of Riyadh. The MPC and E-3A AWACS aircraft operated out of the latter location . The TSQ-9IV cell, along with the communications element of the Saudi Arabian SOC , was situated at a location on Dhahran AB, just inland from the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. The FACP operated out of Al Jubayl, also along the eastern coast of the country. Some 500 personnel made up the population at the three operating locations. The primary mission of this operation was to maintain an air defense enhancement package in Saudi Arabia in providing support to the Saudi Arabian government through air defense radar surveillance of the Gulf area.

On 11 April 1981, the 602nd TCS began deploying en masse to Elf One with vans and equipment. Prior to this date, the majority of wing members who supported Elf One were taken more or less equally from all 601st TCW TACS units. in Saudi Arabia. The detachment in Saudi Arabia Another was inactivated on 12 February 1986. This date marked the end of over five years (activated 9 October 1980) 60lst TCW FACP support for Elf One operations at various locations in Saudi Arabia

601st Air Control Group

On 1 February 1984, the 601st TCW and all its assigned units were awarded the "Air Force Outstanding Award" for the period 1 May 1981 through 30 April 1983. Next, due to a congressionally-imposed European troop strength ceiling, all 45 wing OV-10A aircraft along with approximatley 800 support personnel of both flying squadrons (the 20th TASS and 704th TASS) and much of the maintenance complex returned to the states during the period 5 June 1984 through 29 August 1984. The 45 OV-1OA aircraft previously assigned to the 601st TCW were now assigned to the 27th TASS at George AFB, California, and the the wing's two Bronco squadrons (the 20th and 704th TASS) were inactivated on 30 September 1984.

On 31 May 1985, HQ USAFE notified the 601st TCW that the Air Staff had approved the formation of the 65th Air Division and the 66th Electronic Combat Wing with an activation date of 1 June 1985 at Sembach. In addition, the 66th ECW was assigned host wing responsibilities which included support of the many geographically separated units of the 601st TCW. The 601st TCW was re-designated as the 601st Air Control Group and would be a tenant organization under the 66th Electronic Combat Wing.

In order to meet the Fiscal Year (FY) 1985 and 1986 Department of Defense budget restrictions, the Air Staff directed the reduction of the mobile TACS by two CRPs and four FACPs in two phases. Phase I resulted in the 1 June 1985 inactivation of the 632th TCF located at Grafenwoehr and the 1 August 1985 inactivation of the 602nd TCS at Turkheim and the 619nd TCF located at Schwelentrup. The second phase of this drawdown resulted in the 1 October 1986 inactivation of the 603rd TCS at Mehlingen, the 636th TCF and the 62lst TCF at Wanna and Wiesbaden, respectivley.

The 601st wide range of communications, which had its beginnings in World War II, was heavily tasked in support of operations during Operation Desert Storm and Operation Provide Comfort, starting with the early buildup in the Persian Gulf during August 1990.

One item of communications-electronic equipment that was used in the many deployments and exercises throughout central and northern Europe was the AN/TRC-97A Radio Set, which was maintained by Wideband Maintenance Equipment Repairmen. This set was very versatile because it provided line of sight, point to point communications in the German countryside. The TRC-97 was widely used over a period of many years, but it was eventually replaced by a digital, less maintenance intensive, AN/TRC-170 Radio Set. The 601st air control units became an Operations Group in March 1992 that resulted in the formation of the 601st Support Wing. In1993, more than half the 601st air control assets deployed to Italy in support of Operation Deny Flight, the United Nations sponsored operations that established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.

601st Air Base Wing

The Operations Group was inactivated in October 1993, when the Support Wing was redesignated as the 601st Air Base Wing. At the time, the wing was responsible for over 40 geographically separated units in combination with over 200 people deployed to more than a dozen locations worldwide.

In 1995 the Sembach flightline was returned to German control and the 601st Air Base Wing was inactivated.




Forward Air Control Posts

Radar Stations

Aircraft Squadrons



This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=601st_Tactical_Control_Wing&oldid=459972290

Billy Burke (hurler)

Billy Burke (hurler)

Billy Burke
Personal information
Irish name Liam de Búrca
Sport Hurling
Position Centre-back
Born 1912
Tullaroan, County Kilkenny, Ireland
Years Club
1930s-1940s Tullaroan
Years County
1934-1945 Kilkenny
Inter-county titles
Leinster titles 4
All Irelands 1

William 'Billy' Burke (born 1912) was an Irish hurler who played as a centre-back for the Kilkenny senior team.

Burke made his first appearance for the team during the 1934 championship and became a regular player over the next decade. During that time he won one All-Ireland winner's medal and four Leinster winner's medals.


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Billy_Burke_(hurler)&oldid=462735378

Klein school district

Klein Independent School District


Klein ISD serves unincorporated portions of northern Harris County, Texas, United States and includes the communities and neighborhoods of Klein, Kohrville, Louetta, North Houston, Greenwood Forest, Woods of Wimbledon, Windrose and Gleannloch Farms. Additionally, some areas within the Spring and Tomball postal designations, as well as a portion of "Acres Homes", which is within the city limits of Houston, are also served by Klein ISD.

Bond 2008

On May 10, 2008 a bond referendum for $646.9 million was passed with ~52% (4732 of 9152) of the ballots for it.


List of schools

All schools are located in unincorporated Harris County, Texas.

High Schools

Intermediate Schools

Elementary Schools

Specific schools

Doerre Intermediate School

Doerre Intermediate School was built in 1983. The school was relieved by the opening of Krimmel Intermediate School in fall 2007. The Doerre mascot is an Indian warrior. The Principal is Cissy Saccomanno with the assistant principals Mr. Larry Dommino, Mr. Jeff Bailey and Mrs. Karen Rochen Students continue on to either Klein High School or Klein Oak High School.

Kleb Intermediate School

Kleb Intermediate School is modeled after the Doerre Intermediate School. The Principal is Pam Bourgeois. The mascot is the Bearcub. All students continue into Klein High School.

Klenk Elementary School

Klenk has a Houston mailing address but is not located within city limits. The school opened on August 24, 1992. It was named after early German settlers in the area. Klenk's mascot is the cougar and the school is usually enrolled with 800 to 1,200 students. The school is located adjacent to the Cutten Green and Champions Point Village subdivisions. The former principal, Lynn Allen, retired in 2006 and the former assistant principal, Sandra Simi took the job. Klenk also hosts a radio station, KUGR, and is announced every morning by a group of 5th graders. Each year, 4th graders can audition to become part of KUGR for the next year. Klenk is also known for their musicals and plays.

Principal: Sandra Simi
Assistant Principals: Dorothy Stroech and Frank Ward

The school feeds into Wunderlich Intermediate School and then into Klein Forest High School.

Klein Intermediate School

Klein Intermediate was built in the early 1980s. The school's Principal is Bob Anderson. The Klein mascot is the falcon and its school colors are red, white and, black. Klein Intermediate students continue on to Klein Forest High School.

Ulrich Intermediate School

Ulrich Intermediate School is modeled after Krimmel Intermediate. The Principal is Dr. Kathy Brown. The mascot is a Bulldog. Most students feed into Klein Oak High School. Ulrich opened in August 2010. The school relieved over-crowding at Krimmel Intermediate and parts of Kleb and Doerre. Many were surprised by the fact that Ulrich would not distribute personal Tablet PC's to each individual student as the previous Krimmel Intermediate had done, but were the first Intermediate School in Klein ISD to have assembled a second gymnasium to its facility. Ulrich is the latest Intermediate School to be opened in Klein ISD.

The school administrators are:

Krimmel Intermediate School

Opened in Fall 2007, Krimmel Intermediate School relieved at least three other intermediate schools. The school feeds to Klein Oak High School.

The school administrators are:

Frank Elementary School

Frank Elementary School opened in 2007.It is a redesign of Bengnus Elementary School

Future Schools

See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Klein_Independent_School_District&oldid=457050071

A Fortune at Stake

A Fortune at Stake

A Fortune at Stake
Directed by Walter West
Produced by Walter West
Written by Nat Gould
Starring Violet Hopson
Gerald Ames
Edward O'Neill
James Lindsay
Country United Kingdom

A Fortune at Stake is a 1918 British silent drama film directed by Walter West and starring Violet Hopson, Gerald Ames and Edward O'Neill. It was based on a novel by Nat Gould.



External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_Fortune_at_Stake&oldid=463751744

Weather Nation TV

The Weather Cast

The WeatherCast
Weathercast logo.jpg
Launched May 20, 2010
Closed May 24, 2010
(replaced by WeatherNation TV)
Owned by WeatherNation, LLC/Dish Network
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
Country United States
Broadcast area Nationwide
(available exclusively to Dish Network subscribers)
Website [1]
Dish Network

The Weather Cast was a short-lived television channel seen exclusively on Dish Network. The channel was devoted solely to weather forecasts from across the United States and was a direct competitor to NBC Universal, Bain Capital and Blackstone Group's The Weather Channel. The service was owned by Minneapolis-based WeatherNation, LLC. The channel was operated for only four days, setting a record for the shortest time a television channel has been on air.


See also: The Weather Channel#Dish Network carriage dispute

The channel launched on Dish Network channel 213 on May 20, 2010. The next day, on May 21, 2010, Dish Network announced that it would be eliminating The Weather Channel from its lineups in favor of The Weather Cast, citing rights fees (The Weather Channel requested a rate increase from 11 cents per subscriber to 12 cents, a nine percent increase, totalling $140,000 per month for all Dish subscribers) and The Weather Channel's decision to move toward movies and other entertainment programming.

Dish Network and The Weather Channel reached an agreement to continue carriage of The Weather Channel on May 24, 2010, even though Dish's concerns about programming remained only partially addressed (the Friday night movie that was particularly unpopular with viewers was removed, but instead replaced with more entertainment programming). This agreement led to the discontinuation of The Weather Cast, making it one of the shortest-lived television channels in history. The agreement also led to The Weather Channel to produce a local Weatherscan-style weather information channel for Dish Network, as this advisory indicates on The Weather Cast's channel after its demise:


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Weather_Cast&oldid=462778513

Bharatiya Sewa Sansthan, Aligarh

Bharatiya Sewa Sansthan, Aligarh

Bharatiya Sewa Sansthan, Aligarh (established on 14 July 2011) is a Welfare Society which is working for poor and needy people in every possible way. Its registered office is H. No. 5/69, H. 119, Trimurti Nagar, Baraula By Pass Road, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, Pin 202001.

Bharatiya Sewa Sansthan is now on Facebook and Orkut. People should join this so that they can promote and support this. Presently organization is working on education of poor children, Jaivik farming and employment of people.


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bharatiya_Sewa_Sansthan,_Aligarh&oldid=460110874

Alma Thomas House

Alma Thomas House

Alma Thomas House
Location: 1530 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.
Coordinates: 38°54′38.51″N 77°2′4.37″W / 38.9106972°N 77.0345472°WCoordinates: 38°54′38.51″N 77°2′4.37″W / 38.9106972°N 77.0345472°W
Built: 1875
Architectural style: Italianate
Governing body: Private
Part of: Greater Fourteenth Street Historic District (#94000992)
NRHP Reference#: 86002923
Added to NRHP: July 28, 1987

The Alma Thomas House is an historic house, located at 1530 15th Street, N.W., in the Dupont Circle neighborhood.


Built in 1875, by Thomas G. Allen, the Italianate row house, was the residence and studio of noted African-American artist Alma Thomas (1892–1978).

The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and is a contributing property to the Greater Fourteenth Street Historic District.

See also


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alma_Thomas_House&oldid=463352203



Gordeyevsky (masculine), Gordeyevskaya (feminine), or Gordeyevskoye (neuter) may refer to:

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gordeyevsky&oldid=458835346



Gordeyevsky (masculine), Gordeyevskaya (feminine), or Gordeyevskoye (neuter) may refer to:

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gordeyevsky&oldid=458835346



Gordeyevsky (masculine), Gordeyevskaya (feminine), or Gordeyevskoye (neuter) may refer to:

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gordeyevsky&oldid=458835346



Gordeyevsky (masculine), Gordeyevskaya (feminine), or Gordeyevskoye (neuter) may refer to:

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gordeyevsky&oldid=458835346

Love and Strife



Empedocles, 17th century engraving
Full name Empedocles
Born 490 BC
Agrigentum, Sicily
Died 430 BC aoremovetag(aged around 60)
Mount Etna, Sicily
Era Pre-Socratic philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Pluralist School
Main interests cosmogenesis and ontology
Notable ideas All matter is made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire.

Empedocles (pronounced: /ɛmˈpɛdəklz/; Ancient Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; Empedoklēs; Ancient Greek: ; ca. 490–430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements. He also proposed powers called Love and Strife which would act as forces to bring about the mixture and separation of the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, he supported the doctrine of reincarnation. Empedocles is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to record his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than in the case of any other Presocratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, and has been the subject of a number of literary treatments.



Empedocles is considered the last Greek philosopher to write in verse and the surviving fragments of his teaching are from two poems, Purifications and On Nature. Empedocles was undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of Xenophanes and Parmenides - allusions to the latter can be found in the fragments, - but he seems to have surpassed them in the animation and richness of his style, and in the clearness of his descriptions and diction. Aristotle called him the father of rhetoric, and, although he acknowledged only the meter as a point of comparison between the poems of Empedocles and the epics of Homer, he described Empedocles as Homeric and powerful in his diction. Lucretius speaks of him with enthusiasm, and evidently viewed him as his model. The two poems together comprised 5000 lines. About 550 lines of his poetry survive, although because ancient writers rarely mentioned which poem they were quoting, it is not always certain to which poem the quotes belong. Some scholars now believe that there was only one poem, and that the Purifications merely formed the beginning of On Nature.


We possess only about 100 lines of his Purifications. It seems to have given a mythical account of the world which may, nevertheless, have been part of Empedocles' philosophical system. The first lines of the poem are preserved by Diogenes Laërtius:

On Nature

There are about 450 lines of his poem On Nature extant, including 70 lines which have been reconstructed from some papyrus scraps known as the Strasbourg Papyrus. The poem originally consisted of 2000 lines of hexameter verse, and was addressed to Pausanias. It was this poem which outlined his philosophical system. In it, Empedocles explains not only the nature and history of the universe, including his theory of the four classical elements, but he describes theories on causation, perception, and thought, as well as explanations of terrestrial phenomena and biological processes.


The four elements

It was Empedocles who established four ultimate elements which make all the structures in the world - fire, air, water, earth. Empedocles called these four elements "roots", which, in typical fashion, he also identified with the mythical names of Zeus, Hera, Nestis, and Aidoneus. Empedocles never used the term "element" (Greek: στοιχεῖον) (stoicheion), which seems to have been first used by Plato. According to the different proportions in which these four indestructible and unchangeable elements are combined with each other the difference of the structure is produced. It is in the aggregation and segregation of elements thus arising, that Empedocles, like the atomists, found the real process which corresponds to what is popularly termed growth, increase or decrease. Nothing new comes or can come into being; the only change that can occur is a change in the juxtaposition of element with element. This theory of the four elements became the standard dogma for the next two thousand years.

Love and Strife

The four elements are, however, simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers - to bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are eternally brought into union, and eternally parted from each other, by two divine powers, Love and Strife. Love (Greek: φιλία) explains the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife (Greek: νεῖκος) accounts for their separation. If the elements are the content of the universe, then Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces which the ordinary eye can see working amongst people, but which really pervade the universe. They alternately hold empire over things, - neither, however, being ever quite absent.

The sphere of Empedocles

As the best and original state, there was a time when the pure elements and the two powers co-existed in a condition of rest and inertness in the form of a sphere. The elements existed together in their purity, without mixture and separation, and the uniting power of Love predominated in the sphere: the separating power of Strife guarded the extreme edges of the sphere. Since that time, strife gained more sway and the bond which kept the pure elementary substances together in the sphere was dissolved. The elements became the world of phenomena we see today, full of contrasts and oppositions, operated on by both Love and Strife. The sphere being the embodiment of pure existence is the embodiment or representative of god. Empedocles assumed a cyclical universe whereby the elements return and prepare the formation of the sphere for the next period of the universe.


Since the time of the sphere, Strife has gained more sway; and the actual world is full of contrasts and oppositions, due to the combined action of both principles. Empedocles attempted to explain the separation of elements, the formation of earth and sea, of Sun and Moon, of atmosphere. He also dealt with the first origin of plants and animals, and with the physiology of humans. As the elements entered into combinations, there appeared strange results - heads without necks, arms without shoulders. Then as these fragmentary structures met, there were seen horned heads on human bodies, bodies of oxen with human heads, and figures of double sex. But most of these products of natural forces disappeared as suddenly as they arose; only in those rare cases where the parts were found to be adapted to each other, did the complex structures last. Thus the organic universe sprang from spontaneous aggregations, which suited each other as if this had been intended. Soon various influences reduced the creatures of double sex to a male and a female, and the world was replenished with organic life. It is possible to see this theory as an anticipation of Darwin's theory of natural selection, although Empedocles was not trying to explain evolution.

Perception and knowledge

Empedocles is credited with the first comprehensive theory of light and vision. He put forward the idea that we see objects because light streams out of our eyes and touches them. While flawed in hindsight, this became the fundamental basis on which later Greek philosophers and mathematicians, such as Euclid, would construct some of the most important theories on light, vision and optics.

Knowledge is explained by the principle that the elements in the things outside us are perceived by the corresponding elements in ourselves. Like is known by like. The whole body is full of pores, (and hence respiration takes place over the whole frame). In the organs of sense these pores are specially adapted to receive the effluences which are continually rising from bodies around us; and in this way perception is explained. Thus in vision, certain particles go forth from the eye to meet similar particles given forth from the object, and the resultant contact constitutes vision. Perception is not merely a passive reflection of external objects.

Empedocles noted the limitation and narrowness of human perceptions. We see only a part, but fancy that we have grasped the whole. But the senses cannot lead to truth; thought and reflection must look at the thing on every side. It is the business of a philosopher, while laying bare the fundamental difference of elements, to display the identity that exists between what seem unconnected parts of the universe.


In a famous fragment, Empedocles attempted to explain the phenomena of respiration by means of an elaborate analogy with the clepsydra, an ancient device for transmitting liquids from one vessel to another. This fragment has sometimes been connected to a passage in Aristotle's Physics where Aristotle refers to people who twisted wineskins and captured air in clepsydras to demonstrate that void does not exist. There is however, no evidence that Empedocles performed any experiment with clepsydras. The fragment certainly implies that Empedocles knew about the corporeality of air, but he says nothing whatever about the void. The clepsydra was a common utensil and everyone who used it must have known, in some sense, that the invisible air could resist liquid.


Like Pythagoras, Empedocles believed in the transmigration of the soul, that souls can be reincarnated between humans, animals and even plants. For Empedocles, all living things were on the same spiritual plane; plants and animals are links in a chain where humans are a link too. Empedocles urged a vegetarian lifestyle, since the bodies of animals are the dwelling places of punished souls. Wise people, who have learned the secret of life, are next to the divine, and their souls, free from the cycle of reincarnations, are able to rest in happiness for eternity.

Death and literary treatments


Further reading

External links

Periods Geography Politics Rulers Life Military People
Buildings Arts Sciences Language Writing Lists

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empedocles&oldid=464489534#Love_and_Strife