|City of Frederick|
|— City —|
|• Mayor||Randy McClement (R)|
|• Chief of Police||Kim C. Dine|
|• Total||22.2 sq mi (57.5 km)|
|• Land||22.0 sq mi (57.0 km)|
|• Water||0.2 sq mi (0.5 km)|
|Elevation||302 ft (92 m)|
|• Density||2,938.6/sq mi (1,134.6/km)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||301, 240|
|GNIS feature ID||0584497|
Frederick is a city in north-central Maryland. It is the county seat of Frederick County, the largest county by area in the state of Maryland. Frederick is an outlying community of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area. The city's population was 65,239 people at the 2010 census, making it the second largest incorporated area in Maryland behind Baltimore.
Frederick is home to Frederick Municipal Airport (FDK), which primarily accommodates general aviation traffic, and to the U.S. Army's Fort Detrick, the largest employer in the county. Frederick is also home to BP Solar, which was the second-largest private employer in the county until March 2010, when BP Solar laid off hundreds of employees due to setbacks.
“Frederick Town” was laid out by Daniel Dulany — a land speculator — in 1745; it was settled by a German immigrant party led by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate named (d. 1790), who came to the Maryland colony with his wife, Maria Winz. Schley built the first house of the new town; as late as the 20th century, it stood at the northwest corner of Middle Alley and East Patrick Street. The settlement was founded upon a tract of land granted by Dulany on the banks of Carroll Creek. Within three years, the settlement had become the county seat of Frederick County. It is uncertain which Frederick the town was named for, but the likeliest candidates are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (one of the proprietors of Maryland), Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, and Frederick "The Great" of Prussia. Most sources favor Calvert.
The settlers founded a German Reformed Church (today the church is known as Evangelical Reformed Church, UCC), which also served as a public school, in keeping with the German Reformed tradition of sponsoring universal public education. Many Pennsylvania Dutch (ethnic Germans) settled in Frederick as they migrated westward in the late 18th century. Frederick was a stop along the German migration route that led down through the "Great Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, etc.) to the western Piedmont in North Carolina.
The city served as a major crossroads from colonial times. British General Braddock marched west through Frederick on the way to the fateful ambush near Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War. To control this crossroads during the American Revolution, the British garrisoned a Hessian regiment in the town during the war (the barracks still stand). Afterward, with no way to return to their homeland, the men of the Hessian regiment stayed on and married into the families of the town, strengthening its German identity.
When President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the building of the National Road from Baltimore to St. Louis, the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street. (This later became Route 40.)
Early 19th century
From these beginnings, Frederick grew to an important market town, but by the first third of the 19th century, the town had also become one of the leading mining counties of the United States, producing gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Revolution, Catoctin Furnace near Thurmont had been a significant site for iron production. In 1831 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) completed its Frederick Branch line from Baltimore to Frederick.
When the first wave of Irish refugees from the potato famine settled in the city in 1846, one of the leading members of the Schley family married into the Wilson family from Ireland. Consequently, many of the Schleys converted to Catholicism, and residents of Frederick began to speak English for the first time in the town's history — up until then, the language had been German. Frederick was known during the nineteenth century for its religious pluralism, with one of its main thoroughfares, Church Street, hosting half a dozen major churches. The main Catholic church, St. John's, was built in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (across the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands. Together, these churches dominated the town, set against the backdrop of the first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand — greenwalled in the hills of Maryland."
Frederick's status as a major crossroads put the town at the center of the Maryland campaigns of the Civil War, during which both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. General Stonewall Jackson led his light infantry division through Frederick on his way to the battles of Crampton's, Fox's and Turner's Gaps and Antietam in September 1862. An incident with Pennsylvania Dutch resident Barbara Fritchie was commemorated in the poem of the same name by John Greenleaf Whittier. Union Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's men through the city a few days later on the way to the Battle of South Mountain, where Reno was killed. Slaves escaped from Frederick and the area to join the Union forces, work against the Confederacy and seek freedom.
Sites of historical interest
Late 19th century
Jewish pioneers Henry Lazarus and Levy Cohan settled in Frederick in the 1740s as merchants. Mostly German Jewish immigrants organized a community in the mid-19th century, creating the in 1858. Later the congregation lapsed, but was reorganized in 1917 as a cooperative effort between the older settlers and more recently arrived Eastern European Jews under the name Beth Sholom Congregation.
In 1905, Rev. E.B. Hatcher started the First Baptist Church of Frederick.
After the Civil War, the Maryland legislature established racially segregated public facilities by the end of the 19th century, re-imposing white supremacy. Black institutions were typically underfunded in the state, and it was not until 1921 that Frederick established a public high school for African Americans. First located at 170 West All Saints Street, it moved to 250 Madison Street, where it eventually was adapted as . The building presently houses the .
Possibly the oldest house in the city of Frederick is Schifferstadt, built in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner. It is now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.
In 1814, Dr. John Tyler built what is called the Tyler Spite House at 112 W. Church Street in Frederick to prevent the city from extending Record Street south through Tyler's land to meet West Patrick Street (now also Maryland Route 144)..
As of the 2010 U.S. census, there were 65,239 people residing in Frederick city and roughly 27,000 households. The city's population grew by 23.6% in the ten years since the 2000 census, making it the fastest growing incorporated area in the state of Maryland with a population of over 50,000 for 2010.
2010 census data put the racial makeup of the city at 61% White, 18.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian American, and 14.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. Roughly 4% of the city’s population was of two or more races.
In regard to minority group growth, the 2010 census data show the city's Hispanic population at 9,402, a 271 percent increase compared with 2,533 in 2000, making Hispanics/Latinos the fastest growing race group in the city and in Frederick county (267 percent increase). Frederick city had 3,800 Asian residents in 2010, a 128 percent increase from the city's 1,664 Asian residents in 2000. The city's black or African-American population increased 56 percent, from 7,777 in 2000 to 12,144 in 2010.
For the roughly 27,000 households in the city, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41% were non-families. Approximately 31% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.
As of 2009, 27.5% of the city’s population was under the age of 19, 24.5% were between 20 and 34, 28.1% were between 35 and 54, 9.0% were between 55 and 64, and 10.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age of a Frederick city resident for 2009 was 34 years. For adults aged 18 or older, the population was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.
According to U.S. census data for 2009, the median annual income for a household in Frederick city was $64,833, and the median annual income for a family was $77,642. Males had a median annual income of $49,129 versus $41,986 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,123. Approximately 7.7% of the total population, 5.3% of families, and 5.2% of adults aged 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The unemployment rate in the city for adults over the age of 18 was 5.1%.
In regard to educational attainment for individuals aged 25 or older as of 2009, 34% of the city's residents had a bachelor's or advanced professional degree, 29.6% had some college or an associate's degree, 21.6% had a high school diploma or equivalency, 6.8% had between a 9th and 12th grade level of education, and 3.6% had an 8th grade or lower level of education.
The median value of a home in Frederick city as of 2009 was $303,900, with the bulk of owner-occupied homes valued at between $300,000 and $500,000. The median cost of a rental unit was $1,054 per month, with the bulk of rental units priced between $1,000 and $1,500 per month. The value of the housing stock in Frederick is above the national average and significantly higher than small nearby cities such as Hagerstown, MD and Harrisburg, PA. This discrepancy likely reflects Frederick’s location as a desirable and growing commuter suburb of Washington, DC (and related areas in Montgomery County MD such as Bethesda), one of the most expensive housing and rental markets in the nation.
2009 census data indicated that roughly 89% of the workforce commuted to work by automobile, with an average commute time of approximately 30 minutes. This suggests that a substantial portion of those residing in Frederick city are, in fact, commuting out of the county for work.
Frederick has a Board of Aldermen of six members (one of whom is the Mayor) which serves as its legislative body. Elections are held every 4 years. The current board was elected November 3, 2009, and consists of Shelley Aloi, Carol Krimm, Michael O'Connor, Kelly Russell, and Karen Young.
According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
The Frederick Arts Council is the designated arts organization for Frederick County. The organization is charged with promoting, supporting, and advocating the arts, a thriving community in the city. There are over ten art galleries in downtown Frederick, and three theaters are located within 50 feet of each other (Cultural Arts Center, Weinberg Center for the Arts, and the Maryland Ensemble Theatre). Frederick is the home of The Delaplaine Visual Arts Education Center, a leading non-profit in the region, as well as the Maryland Shakespeare Festival.
In August 2007, the streets of Frederick were adorned with 30 life-size fiberglass keys as part of a major public art project entitled "The Keys to Frederick". In October 2007, artist William Cochran created a large-scale glass project titled . The project is on the east face of the Francis Scott Key Apartments in downtown Frederick.
The Maryland Ensemble Theatre (MET), a professional theater company, is housed on the lower level of the Francis Scott Key Hotel. The MET first produced mainstage theater in 1997, but the group began performing together with its creation of The Comedy Pigs sketch comedy/improv troupe in April 1993.
Frederick has a community orchestra, the Frederick Symphony Orchestra, that performs five concerts per year consisting of classical masterpieces. Other musical organizations in Frederick include the Frederick Chorale, the Choral Arts Society of Frederick, the Frederick Regional Youth Orchestra, and the Frederick Symphonic Band. The Frederick Children's Chorus has performed since 1985. It is a five-tier chorus, with approximately 150 members ranging in age from 5 to 18.
A weekly recital is played on the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon each Sunday at noon for half an hour. The carillon can be heard from anywhere in Baker Park, and the City Carillonneur can be seen playing in the tower, which is open each week at that time.
Frederick is home to the Frederick School of Classical Ballet, the official school for Maryland Regional Ballet. Approximately 30 dance studios are located around the city. Each year, these studios perform at the annual DanceFest event.
For a city its size, Frederick also has a surprisingly visible and growing independent and alternative rock scene, with live music regularly featured in many of the city's bars and pubs. Locations such as Cafe Nola (on East Patrick), Guido's Pub (on 6th and Market), and Cafe 611 (600 block of Market St.) are some of the venues where alternative-minded youth and young adults congregate.
Frederick also has a large amphitheatre in Baker Park, which features regular music performances of local and national acts, particularly in the summer months.
Frederick organizations include the Peace Resource Center of Frederick County, a chapter of Women in Black, and the Frederick Progressive Action Coalition or FredPac.
The UNESCO Center for Peace has been working since 2004 in the city and around the state to promote the ideals of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The O Center for Peace is partner to County's Public Schools, Hood College, Frederick Community College, Maryland School for The Deaf (MSD), Frederick County Public Libraries, on a variety of community projects that include various after-school programs, Ambassador Speaker Series, Regional Model United Nations, International Model United Nations, celebrations of major United Nations International Days, the Frederick Stamp Festival, and exchange programs for high school and college-level students and schools.
There are numerous religious denominations in Frederick: the first churches were established by early Protestant settlers, followed by Irish Catholics and other European Catholics. In Frederick City proper, Lutheran, Evangelical (German) Reformed, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic (East Second Street), Methodist (West Second Street), Episcopal and Congregationalist (UCC) churches predominate. Mt. Olivet Cemetery is the largest cemetery in the City and is Roman Catholic. Maryland was originally founded as a Catholic colony by Cecil Calvert, a Roman Catholic supporter of England's King Charles I. Frederick County also retains ties to the Pennsylvania Dutch and some Old Order Amish cultivate land as small-scale truck farmers. Other denominations represented in Frederick City and in the surrounding county include large numbers of Brethren, as well as some Pentecostal churches. Quinn Chapel, of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, is located on East Third Street. The AME Church, founded in Philadelphia in the early 19th century by free blacks, is the first black independent denomination in the United States. The Church of Jesus Christ of Later-Day Saints (Mormon) has had a presence in Frederick since the 1970s when the first congregation was organized and now includes four congrations in two buildings within the City.
The Islamic Society of Frederick,founded in the early 1990s, serves Frederick's Muslim community.
Frederick is licensed one Maryland Public Television station affiliate: WFPT 62 (PBS/MPT).
The city is home to WFMD (930AM - News/Talk/Sports), WFRE (99.9FM - Country Music), and WAFY (103.1FM - Adult Contemporary) radio stations. The following box details all of the radio stations in the local market.
Frederick's newspaper of record is The Frederick News-Post.
Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS) operates area public schools.
High schools serving Frederick City students:
Private high schools
Colleges and universities
Notable residents and natives
- Early History of the Frederick County Jail
- Thematic Histories of Frederick: Overview history of Frederick
- Official city government website
- Official county website
- Frederick News-Post
- Information site on Community Bridge
- Schifferstadt Architectural Museum
- Frederick, Maryland at the Open Directory Project
- Memorials, monuments, statues & other outdoor art in & around Frederick
- Frederick County Public Schools
- "Frederick". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
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